Part 15: The Application

It may surprise you to discover that I was really kind of a dweeb in high school. Sure, I was popular in the sense that everyone knew me. But really, when you only have a hundred or so kids in your entire high school that really isn’t that much of an accomplishment.

During my senior year, I started trying to develop my own website. This was in the pre- MySpace and Facebook days. It was on an old, free Geo Cities web host. I really didn’t have much material there, just a little about me and probably a few small writings I thought were humorous. Later in college, thanks to my friend Ryan Hutchinson, I learned more about registering a domain, hosting, and designing a website. Eventually I moved everything over to a GoDaddy account and, for a time, was creating new content and writing every day.

During these years, I decided – mostly out of a joke but I’d be lying if there wasn’t some desperation involved – to develop an Application to be my Girlfriend. I put this thing together, posted it on my website, and sent it out to my distribution list. I never received any applications from that initial blast, but there on my website it remained for years.

When I returned from the great 6-week pause, I found the following in my email inbox.

1.  What is your name? Molly Layne D’Avy

2.  How have we met? On a volleyball court at Bourgeois Hall, right before the fall semester of 2005.

3.  Are you a “real” person?  Of course.

4.  What is your hair color and shoe size? Dark brown hair and shoe size 9 ½.

5.  Do you in any way, shape, or form resemble Marge Simpson? Only that we are both female, but she is not real, so I wouldn’t count that..

6.  Can you please explain to me in 500 words or less the trans-nuclear quasmatic theory of nepitheisism?  Well, I don’t have all day, but I’ve done my research and only found information on the miasmatic theory, which is a poisonous vapor, that stinks really bad and comes from decaying matter. And I don’t think that nepitheisism is a real word. Nepi is a small town in Italy, and theisism isn’t a word. Unless it’s a typo and you meant theism, which is belief in a god. Then maybe it could make sense if Nepi had their own god. And Transnuclear is the name of some company.

7.  Have you ever been to Canada, and if so, where?  Nope.

8.  Do you attend church?  If so, where? Of course. Sometimes with my parents in Coteau but most of the other times at Our Lady of Wisdom. And one day, possibly somewhere else…***quick update on my answer*** I have attended First Assembly in Lafayette a few times this summer and plan on going there most weeks, more than likely, although I will attend mass occasionally on my own and with my parents.***

9.  Do you except Jesus Christ as your Lord and Savior? Definitely, and that should be accept, not except.

10.  Have you ever been convicted of a crime (answering yes may or may not have a direct influence on the consideration of your appointment to the seeked position)? Nope

11.  What’s the big deal with JELLO about? Well, I think that when it was first invented, it was this new modern marvel. I mean, science always taught 3 states of matter: liquid, solid, or gas, but JELLO has characteristics of a solid and a liquid. So since people growing up at the time it was first introduced had never seen anything like that and since it was a new desert, it instantly was a big hit. Now, those people who were the first ones introduced to it continued to buy it for their children and so on, although I believe the trend has moved on to candy-type items that are quick and easy, with no preparation involved.

12.  If you could live on any planet on the universe, where and why? Of course I’d stay living on earth. I mean, God purposefully created it for humans to live on, so why change the way He wanted things to be. And besides, who wants to live with an oxygen mask and thermal clothing their whole lives??

13.  Who do you consider to be the greatest American President to walk the earth? Well, I don’t know much about the presidents, but from what I do know I’d have to say maybe President Lincoln. He did a lot for the whole slavery issue and I think he was right in standing up for people who looked a little different.

14.  Have you ever eaten Swiss cheese? Yes, and it’s rather good on turkey sandwiches, even though it’s a little dry and funny tasting.

15.  Would you ever consider moving to Willcox, Arizona? I’d have to say yes. It seems like beef would be cheap there, since they are the national leader in cattle production. And besides, if God wanted me to go there or if God called my husband to go (which I believe that whomever I marry would have the same basic calling as I do, even though I am willing to go wherever he goes), then I’d have to go, even though I may not like the scorpions and dry weather.

16.  Would you ever consider going on vacation to Wilcox Lake in Canada? I’ve never been that far north before, but if I knew more about the area then I would consider it.

17.  Would you agree that Canada is the biggest country in the United States?   No because Canada is not in the United States.

18.  Are you good at spelling? Yes, I guess.

19.  Have you ever figured out the square root of 782 “just for the heck of it?” No..not of 782, but I’m sure I’ve done it for other numbers.

20.  Do you believe in Alien abductions? No. If there were aliens or something on other planets, why wouldn’t God have it in the Bible?

21.  Have you ever meet two guys named Stan and Howie? Nope..I’ve met guys names Stan, but never a Howie, and by reading your old blogs, I’m sure it wasn’t the Stan that you are asking about.

22.  Can you tell me how to find Stan and Howie? Nope

23.  Have you seen my butcher knife anywhere? The last time I saw it, it was in the sink and then I washed it and gave it to Shelly to dry and put away, but that was actually more of your grandfather’s knife, I guess.

24.  Do you have any cool ideas for a fundraiser? It would depend on what the fundraiser was for…

25.  Do you, like, talk like this? Nope

26.  Do you think I say “salsa” funny? Well, I’m not sure if I’ve heard you say it, but I’ve seen you type it. And if you did say it funny, I would have noticed because I pick up on things like that.

27.  Have you ever seen John Price do the funky chicken dance? Nope. I don’t know John Price.

28.  Have your pants ever disappeared while walking down the street? No, but they have been left unzipped while walking around in the mall and also have ripped (not in the back, though) in public.

29.  Have you ever gone a whole day then get home and notice you forgot to put your shoes on? No, but in middle school, I was wearing my brothers huge sandals and forgot to put my shoes on before leaving, so I walked around school all day with flip flops hanging off by like 4 inches in the back.

30.  If you were an eggplant, what kind of eggplant would you be?  Why? I would be the nice green kind, and would be peeled and grilled.

31.  Finally, in 5,332 words or more, please give your opinion on shrimp

            I think shrimp are good. Either boiled, to eat with ketchup, or fried on a po-boy. They are a good tasting little crustacean (my personal opinion is spread out in huge bold letters throughout all of this information). I also think that they are small, swimming, decapod crustaceans classified in the infraorder Caridea, found widely around the world in both fresh and salt water. A number of more or less unrelated crustaceans also have the word “shrimp” in their common name. Examples are the mantis shrimp and the opposum or mysid shrimp, both of which belong to the same class (Malacostraca) as the true shrimp, but constitute two different orders within it, the Stomatopoda and the Mysidacea. Triops longicaudatus or Triops cancriformis are also popular animals in freshwater aquaria, and are often called shrimp, although they belong instead to the Notostraca, a quite unrelated group. Shrimp are distinguished from the superficially similar prawns by the structure of the gills, and by the fact that female shrimp (as in all other pleocyemates) brood the eggs on their pleopods. There is, however, much confusion between the two, especially among non-specialists, and many shrimp are called “prawns” and many prawns are called “shrimp”. This is particularly widespread in culinary contexts, including the following sections. A number of the larger species, including the shrimp Penaeus setiferus, are caught commercially and used for food. Recipes utilizing shrimp form part of the cuisine of many cultures: examples include jambalaya, okonomiyaki, poon choi, bagoong, Kerala and scampi. Preparing shrimp for consumption usually involves removing the shell, tail, and “sand vein” (a euphemism for digestive tract). Removing the “vein” can be referred to as “deveining,” and it is interesting to note that shrimp do not have any veins; they have an open circulatory system.

Shrimp taste good. As with other seafood, shrimp is high in calcium, protein and low in food energy. Dried shrimp is commonly used in Asian cuisines. To deshell the shrimp, first hold onto the tail while gently removing the shell around the body. The tail can be detached completely at this point, or left attached for presentation purposes. The “vein” is then removed; make a shallow cut lengthwise down the outer curve of the shrimp’s body. Pick out the dark ribbon-like vein running lengthwise along the shrimp’s back with a pointed utensil. Then rinse the shrimp under cold running water. If the tail has been detached, the vein can be pinched at the tail end and pulled out completely with the fingers. Shrimp is best if cooked very briefly, typically only enough time for the meat to lose its translucency. It quickly becomes rubbery and unappetizing if overcooked, and the line between cooked and overcooked is very thin. Several types of shrimp are kept in home aquaria and are useful in controlling algae and removing debris. Freshwater shrimp available for aquaria include the Japanese marsh shrimp (Caridina japonica, also called “Amano shrimp,” as their use in aquaria was pioneered by Takashi Amano) and ghost or glass shrimps (Palaeomonetes sp.). Popular saltwater shrimp include the cleaner shrimp Lysmata amboinensis, the Fire shrimp (Lysmata debelius) and the Harlequin shrimp (Hymenocera picta). Shrimp are small animals that live on the floor of oceans and lakes. There are over 2,000 different species of shrimp worldwide. Shrimp are invertebrates (animals lacking a backbone) that have a tough exoskeleton. Anatomy: Shrimp range from a small fraction of an inch to 9 inches (a few mm to 23 cm) long. These crustaceans have a thin, smooth, hard, and almost transparent exoskeleton. Shrimp vary widely in color; tropical varieties are often brightly colored. Shrimp have 5 pairs of jointed walking legs on the thorax, and they have 5 pairs of swimming legs (swimmerets) and 3 pairs of maxillae (feeding appendages) on the abdomen. The body, legs, swimmerets, and other appendages are segmented.

I like Shrimp. Shrimp have two pairs of segmented sensory antennae, a tail fan, and compound eyes. Diet: Shrimp are omnivores; they eat plants and small animals. The unusual pistol shrimp kills or stuns its prey by making a very loud sound with a huge claw with a moveable, snapping appendage. Life Cycle: Female shrimp lay over a thousand eggs, which are attached to her swimming legs. The shrimp emerge as tiny, floating organisms, a component of zooplankton. After growing, they sink to the bottom, where they will live. As a shrimp grows, it often molts (losing its old shell and growing a new one). Predators: Shrimp are eaten by many animals, including many fish, many birds (including flamingos and loons), octopi, squid, cuttlefish, and people. Classification: Kingdom Animalia, Phylum Arthropoda, Class Crustacea (crustaceans), Subclass Malacostraca, Order Decapoda, Suborder Natantia. Approximately seven (7) different varieties of shrimp are mentioned in reference to freshwater aquaria : Yamato Numa Ebi/Caridina spp., Ghost/Grass, Wood/Singapore, Rock/Mountain, Bumble Bee, Macrobrachium, and Neocaridina spp. These shrimp are kept primarily as detritus and/or algae consumers. Shrimp of the genus Macrobrachium, however, do not provide any use to the aquarist in general. Although they could possibly be kept as a novelty for their own sake. Of the seven species found to be useful to the aquaria hobby, the Japanese Marsh Shrimp – better known as the Yamato Numa Ebi – is by far the most popular in the hobby. The Yamato Numa Ebi, which can be translated as Japanese Marsh or Grass Shrimp, is taxonomically identified as Caridina japonica. According to Nature Aquarium World literature, this shrimp was introduced to the aquarium hobby in 1983 by renowned aquarist and photographer, Takashi Amano 1. It is for this reason that this species is often referred to as the Amano shrimp. Yamato shrimp grow to a maximum adult size of 2″ head to tail (approximately 5cm). Although very tolerant of salinity and pH ranges (down to 6.0), they are very sensitive to ammonia/ammonium and heavy metal concentrations, as are most freshwater shrimp. Temperature, likewise has to be kept below 30C because they are not a tropical species. Speaking of caridina and neocaridina species in general, Uwe Werner states that if these animals are healthy they will breed without difficulty. Males, he claims can be identified by their long swimmerets and females most easily by the presence of eggs2. They do not produce many offspring and the eggs are very tiny, thus the difficulty that aquarists encounter in breeding them in captive settings. For one Chinese Singaporean aquarist’s experience with this fact, see Tow Fui’s article on Breeding Yamato Numa Ebi. A European aquarist has accomplished the feat and describes his experiences in this article. The information in this second article is entirely in German, however, so you’ll need a translation service or a German friend. Alta Vista has a pretty good translation service on their site, you might try it. One of the most distinguishing traits of the Yamato shrimp is that it is much more attractively colored than the other varieties. Their bodies are light brown to opaque with a tan stripe down their back. Additional series of broken reddish-brown lines run down their sides. They will also have two dark spots on their tail, one in each rear corner. Of additional importance to aquarists is the fact that they do not possess the large claws of some of the other shrimp species and they are purportedly longer lived. The real attraction of these shrimp is their avowed success in algae consumption, especially soft algaes.

I think shrimp can stink, but they taste better than they smell. They are also rumored to eat red algaes in the absence of other foods. However, like most captive inverts they will choose fish food over algae any day and often will turn on soft leafed plants (especially soft mosses, i.e. java moss and riccia)3 in the absence of softer algae types or fish foods. They will not, however, eat Black Brush Alage (BBA), nor can they combat spot algae on tank surfaces. They are not capable, it seems, of pulling tougher algae with their ” hands”. They eat algae directly with their mouths. Soren “Disky” Peterson also has a nice image of a Caridina japonica on his web page. Unfortunately for North American aquarists, this species is not yet readily available in all but the coastal and near coastal states. Some report that they do ship well, so they should be more available soon in all locations. I haven’t been able to test this yet, but hope to do so soon! Another caridina species, Caridina serrata, is also widely known in the aquaria hobby. Uwe Werner notes that this shrimp is the most well-known, having been used in the aquarium hobby for many years. C. serrata is of Asian descent, most likely Hong Kong. Other shrimp hail from this area too, i.e. C. lanceifrons, Neocaridina serrata, and Macrobrachium hainanense4. There are several dwarf varieties of this shrimp, most notably the shrimp commonly known as the Bumble Bee shrimp. A hybridization of this shrimp – the Crystal Red – is also available. Much of the information on the Crystal Red site above is duplicated on the Caridina serrata site maintained by Frans Goddijn mentioned at the beginning of this section. Bee shrimps, as they are often referred to, are fairly small. They grow to only 1″ in adulthood and grow to adulthood fairly slowly. The pictures to the right show bee shrimp and crystal red together, as well as a single crystal red shrimp. As their common name suggests, they are marked with light black to grey stripes across their backs. The ideal requirements for keeping these shrimps are a pH less than 7.5 and clean (ammonia/ammonium free) water. Temperatures in the 22-25C range are best. A planted tank with a neutral to acidic pH would be an ideal environment. Bee shrimp are not particularly great algae consumers; perhaps due to their small size. They do however tend to remain very active and are quite peaceful toward other tank mates. Soft mosses, flake food, and vegetable matter are favored over other food sources. Frans Goddijn suggests carrots and Mr. Suzuki (Crystal Red site) suggests boiled spinach. To breed the Bee shrimp successfully, the aquarist needs only maintain the proper environmental conditions set forth above. Clean water being of utmost importance. Bee shrimp can reproduce on a monthly basis if cared for properly. The life span of the average Bee shrimp is only 15 months and it generally takes about 6 months to attain adult size5. I am not certain if the shrimps must have attained adult size before they will begin to produce offspring or whether their reproductive potential begins at an earlier stagAnother species of shrimp, closely related to the Yamato shrimp, are classified in the Neocaridina genus. There is little to no information concerning shrimp in this genus mentioned in aquaria literature. One species that is mentioned is Neocaridina denticula, which is known in Japan as Minami numa ebi (Southern Marsh or Swamp Shrimp). Minimum requirements for the care of this species are described as a temperature between 15 and 28C and a neutral pH. These shrimp are said to attain an adult size of 3-4 cm The genii Caridina and Neocaridina belong to the family Atyidae. The family Atyidae contains 15 genera with 160 species with representatives from Asia, South America, and Africa. 120 of these species belong to the Caridina group. Requirements for the care of shrimp from either of these genera are very similar. Low dissolved metals and ammonium/ia, moderate to low pH and warm temperatures should be the norm with any of the different varieties. Similar to the Caridina and Neocaridina shrimps are those of the genus Atyopsis, which also belongs to the Atyidae family. The shrimp most often encountered by aquarists as either the Wood or Singapore Shrimp is from this genus

Shrimp are interesting looking creatures. The proper designation for this variety is Atyopsis moluccensis. Other names which – based upon their descriptions – are likely synonynms are: Flower, Brine, and (Malaysian) Rainbow 7. Other aquarists have encountered shrimp of the Macrobrachium genus being offered as Rainbow shrimp as well. Common names being what they are, the proper identification of freshwater shrimp is all too often a difficult venture. Wood/Singapore shrimp are described as being tan to pinkish with dark markings on their body area just behind the eyes. A darker stripe runs the length of the back. The picture at the left was taken from Barron’s Aquarium Fish, 1992 and refers to Atyopsis moluccensis as the Brine shrimp. Uwe Werner reports that these shrimp are able to change their color according to mood or their surroundings. Another report states that dominant individuals will take on a bright orange coloration8. Werner describes other Atyopsis species whose tail fans also possess a yellow outlining. The information that I’ve gathered suggests that they reach an adult size of approximately 3 inches so can be considerably larger than the other shrimps already discussed. They tend to be territorial, but no reports of aggression toward tank mates have been reported thus far. Wood/Singapore shrimp are ideal representatives of the Atyidae family. Distinguishing features are “a brush-like pilosity of the pairs of the claw carrying legs and the more or less developed tendency within this genera of a reduced rostrum”9. Shrimp in this genus have developed specialized feeding apparatus. The Wood/Singapore shrimp is a filter feeding shrimp and has two pair of specialized webbed, fan-like, appendages instead of claws. They use these to filter algae and microorganisms from the water, effectively acting as a biochemical filtration system! They are very interesting to observe. It is a shame that they too are not so readily available in the Western Hemisphere. These are a tropical species so should be able to handle temperatures in the higher ranges. In nature they live in flowing waters, so water quality needs to be strictly adhered to in the aquarium. Oxygen content being of utmost importance. Alkalinity and salinity ranges could not be determined, though ranges closer to neutral and moderate would more than likely suffice. Breeding information, likewise, was scarce. It is likely that the young larvae need food much smaller than that typically offered. Planktonic microorganisms found in algae or marine waters would probably be a wise choice. Perhaps a breeding aquarium filled with unicellular algae could be used to rear the young shrimp? A species similar to A. moluccensis is A. anaspides pictured here in a preserved form. Another genus or group within the Atyidae family is mentioned in aquaria literature as Attya or Atya and or Atyoida (bisculcata), several different pictures of which are listed below. Shrimp in this group are commonly referred to as the Mountain or Rock Shrimp and are closely related to shrimp in the Atyopsis (Wood/Singapore) group. The shrimp pictured at the right, Paratya compressa, may also be similar to the Rock/Mountain shrimp. Unlike Atyopsis, these shrimp can be found in not only Asia, but in South America and Africa. They can get quite large and generally reach an adult size of 8-12 cm. These shrimp are true scavengers rather than algae consumers.

I like fried shrimp. A large assortment of shrimp are contained in this group so an adequate generalized description of this species could not be discovered. Environmental information suggests that they require a temperature in the 20-28C range and a neutral pH. They are members of the Atyidae family, so share many of the same characteristics of the Atyopsis shrimp, such as a brush-like covering of their claws and legs. (Werner provided pictures of some with “filter fans” in place of their front claws and some with “pin cushions” covering these claws. These were from both West Africa and South and Central America.) Other information on this genus was unavailable to me. Many Atya species shrimp were discovered by Uwe Werner in Central and South America. His new AquaLog book Shrimps, Crayfishes, and Crabs, in the Freshwater Aquarium is a valuable source of information and I highly recommend it. More familiar, perhaps, to North American and European aquarists are the shrimp in the Palaeomonidae family. The Palaeomonidae family contains at least four genii that might be familiar to aquarist; Macrobrachium, Palaeomonetes, Palaemon, and Leander. The last two would especially be familiar to marine aquarists. For freshwater aquarists, the genus Palaeomonetes would be familiar. Palaeomonetes shrimp are commonly referred to as either ghost, grass, or glass shrimps. Generally considered live bait foods, these shrimps/prawn10 make an interesting and useful addition to the home aquarium. Palaeomonetes are a hardy shrimp, tolerant of warmer temperatures11. They are excellent scavengers and fair consumers of soft algaes, although they prefer fish (flake especially) food. These shrimp grow to an adult size of approximately 5 cm and are not particularly long lived (1-1 1/2 years at most) nor do they grow to adulthood very quickly. Most shrimp in this genus appear as slightly translucent to white; the contents of their stomachs being visible. They have ten pairs of legs, the front two pairs ending in small claws. They have been accused of catching small fishes and fry (?). My experience, however, leads me to believe otherwise. I would guess that the fish catching shrimps probably belong to the genus Macrobrachium (which is described in more detail below). The small size of the Palaeomonetes shrimp doesn’t suggest that it would be very adept at catching any fish other than the very smallest of fry. Exceptions are however the rule! Most also will have a small yellow – orange dot in each corner of their tail, as the shrimp in the picture at the left represents. The Palaeomonetes group can be effectively divided into two categories; brackish and freshwater. The use of the common names is often quite confusing, so for the purposes of this article I shall use only the scientific names in this section. 12. Palaeomonetes kadakensis or paludosus shrimp are found in predominantly freshwater systems. While Palaeomonetes pugio or vulgaris shrimp are found in brackish and/or marine waters and cannot tolerate extended exposure to fresh water. These differences, however, do not affect their physical descriptions. They do, though, have an impact on the environmental and reproductive requirements and/or habits of the two varieties. The different pH and saline needs of the two should be evident according to their natural locale. P. kada/paludosus, being primarily freshwater inhabitants, are more tolerant than the brackish species of lower pH and salinity ranges. The brackish water species may indeed benefit from the addition of iodide salts, similarly to the needs of other brackish tank inhabitants, i.e. gobies, mollies, and monos. However, the average hobbyist is not likely to be able to distinguish between the two varieties at first glance. Reproduction traits are what most distinguish the purely freshwater species from the brackish species. Most brackish or marine shrimps produce planktonic larvae which are very difficult to raise. A tank of green algae or a brackish water environment with plenty of microorganisms for the planktonic young to feed on would be ideal. True freshwater shrimps raise the embryos from beneath their swimmerets (legs) until they are fairly well developed and able to fend for themselves. Freshwater shrimp young will resemble the adult shrimp, only much smaller. Liquid invertebrate food, microfoods, minute algae, and/or baby brine shrimp are excellent first foods. The parent should be moved ASAP. Larvae should be free swimming for 1-2 weeks depending on temperature, then will settle down/out The remaining shrimp varieties mentioned in the aquarium hobby are those in the genus Macrobrachium, which also is part of the Palaeomonidae family.

I like boiled shrimp.  Macrobrachium are freshwater prawn that are often commercially raised as a food fish in many part of the world. Many different varieties exist. Macrobrachium is seldom seen in the aquarium, and then probably only as a novelty item. It gets too large for most planted aquaria and can cause damage to both plants and fish due to the existence of large claws on dominant adult males. The name macrobrachium actually means “big arm.” Because of its widespread distribution and use in the food industry, many varieties of Macrobrachium are known and described as the wealth of photos listed below will attest to. There are other invertebrates which are mentioned in the hobby as well. These are crayfish which are found in the Astacura sub-order of the Order Decapoda. This sub-order consists of five families of crayfish and/or lobsters. Another crustacea which most aquarists are familiar with are the amphipod specie Gammarus. Daphnia and Cyclops are two others. These inverts are predominantly used as food items, either for fish or human consumption. Gammarus, also know as scuds to fishermen, are very small creatures. They measure approximately 3/4 of an inch in length (20 mm). They generally are found along shorelines among aquatic plants where they are particularly difficult to find, being semi-transparent. As far as using them in the aquarium, the only use is as a food item. Raising these small creatures requires much the same environmental conditions required to raise daphnia. A high calcium content (Kh) also needs to be maintained to ensure proper growth of their exoskeleton. Beyond this general information, little is mentioned about their existence in an aquarium. Shrimp live in both salt and fresh water and usually inhabit the areas around shallow seafloors, feeding on small animals and plants. However, some species are pelagic (open ocean). In contrast with lobsters and crayfish, shrimps are flattened laterally instead of horizontally. “They have thick-muscled abdomens, which they contract rapidly in making their sudden, backward-swimming escapes. The red color is due to the hemoglobin in the hemolymph (blood) of the brine shrimp. It increases in response to low oxygen level or to greater oxygen demand (your red blood cell number increases also with regular aerobic exercise). During the warmer months of the year, any of the following reasons can contribute to the increased hemoglobin content: 1). rapid population growth -> less oxygen available for everyone; 2). warmer water temp -> lower oxygen solubility in the water; 3). warmer water temp -> greater metabolic activity -> greater oxygen demand. Don’t let a dealer fool you about red or brown being more nutritious. You can have either red or brown brine shrimp that is more nutritious than the other. Nutritional quality is related to the quality and availability of food to the brine shrimp, not hemoglobin content. I must point out however, that there can be coorelation among time of the year, water temperature, oxygen level in the water, food availability to the brine shrimp and the hemoglobin content. Just because a batch of brine shrimp is red or brown doesn’t automatically mean that they are either more or less nutritious than the other. Red brine shrimp lay eggs (cysts) instead of giving live birth like the brown ones. This is probably because when the salinity increases it may mean that their pond is drying out an in order to survive they need to produces cysts that will survive until it rains again. Red brine shrimp are not as nutritious as the brown ones since they come from an oxygen depleted environment that has less food in it for them. It was not my imagination, the red ones do live longer in my refrigerator because they can survive with less oxygen than the brown ones. Fairy shrimp are easily identified in vernal pools. They appear as 1/2 to 1 1/2 inch crustaceans swimming upside down (ventral side up). The adult fairy shrimp have stalked compound eyes, two sets of antennae, and 11 pairs of leaf-like swimming legs. Coloration is usually red-orange due to the hemoglobin in the shrimp, but can range from translucent whitish to gray, blue or green. Because coloration is determined by the contents of the food supply in the pool which the shrimp inhabit, it is usually constant among the individuals of the pool.

Shrimp make excellent bait.

Male shrimp possess an enlarged second antenna used to clasp the female during mating. Female fairy shrimp often have a brood sack on their abdomen. Female fairy shrimp usually outnumber males. They are capable of three states of mobility. Resting at the bottom of the pools, darting rapidly and drifting slowly. The shrimp propel themselves with a wave-like anterior-posterior beating motion of their legs. This action is complemented by the propeller motion of the outermost part of the legs (the “exopodites”. By changing the angle of these exopodites the speed of motion can be changed. LIFE CYCLE: Fairy shrimp reproduction is initiated when the male clasps the female with its second, clasping antennae. Though the male and females swim clasped together for several days, the process of copulation takes minutes. Hours after copulation the male fairy shrimp dies. The female carries both fertilized and parthenogenetic eggs externally in its brood sack for several days before being released to fall to the bottom of the pool, or the eggs may remain attached until the female dies. The number of eggs a female produces in a clutch varies from 10 to 150. Several clutches can often be produced during the life of a female. Females can produce two types of eggs, thin shelled “summer” eggs and thick shelled “winter” eggs. The type of egg produced is determined by the number of males in the community; summer eggs will be produced if there is a shortage of males in the population. Summer eggs hatch rapidly; the young form while still inside the brood sac. The young from these eggs will populate the pool during the same season they are laid. The winter eggs remain in the mud at the base of the pool and dry out with the pool. The eggs will hatch in the spring when the pools refills. Though the resting period usually varies between 6 to 10 months, eggs have been hatched in a laboratory after 15 years. Eggs have been subjected to temperatures of as high as 99C and as low as -190 C and remained viable. Winter eggs usually hatch 30 hours after being exposed to water. Typically, one generation inhabits each wet period of the pool. Fairy shrimp usually hatch as nauplius. The young will develop in a series of instars. Each instar involves molting the exoskeleton to grow more segments until they reach the 20 segments of adults. Development is often rapid in the spring, but can be slowed by unusually low temperatures. The speed of development usually reflects the amount of time water will remain in the pool, or the arrival of predators in the pool. Young which have hatched from winter eggs develop more slowly than those that have hatched from summer eggs. Fairy shrimp can complete their life cycle in 16 days. This allows for rapid reproduction. Winter eggs can be carried from pools to pool by traveling animals, or, in the case of pools that dry out completely, picked up in the wind and be blown to other pools. For reasons currently unknown to scientists, there is an uneven level of population in a pool from year to year. In a single pool, fairy shrimp may be abundant for several consecutive years and abse DISTRIBUTION: There are three known types of fairy shrimp in Massachusetts. The most common fairy shrimp is Eubranchipus vernalis and any fairy shrimp caught in the state is likely to be this species. Eubranchipus intricatus is found in several locations but its distribution is not well known. Nationally this species is uncommon, but widely distributed in vernal pools with low salinity. Eubranchipus bundyi has been found in Massachusetts but there are few recorded occurrences of the species in the state. Microscopic examination of the antenna base or mouth parts is necessary to distinguish among these three species.nt the next. ECOLOGY: The leg movements serve the purpose of collecting algae, bacteria, protozoa, rotifers and floating detritus from the water. Food is then filtered from the water and scraped by sets of appendages to be eaten using a mandible mouth. Fairy shrimp have been observed gnawing on larger matter such as dead tadpoles, mollusks and amphibian eggs. The leg movements of the fairy shrimp also serve the purpose of taking the oxygen the animal needs from the water. The ephemeral nature of the fairy shrimp reduces the limiting factors on their population. Fairy shrimp have few natural predators. They are unlikely to be heavily preyed upon by other vernal pool inhabitants because they utilize the pool before the majority of carnivorous insects have colonized the pool. Also, the wood frogs and mole salamanders breeding in the pools have not regained their regular appetite after winter hibernation and, thus, are not major predators. However, these amphibians, caddis fly larvae, dytiscid larvae, other insects, and, especially, waterfowl who utilize the pool, often do prey upon fairy shrimp. Because fairy shrimp live in temporary wetlands there are no predatory fish. The abundance of food is less of a factor in the population of fairy shrimp than in other organisms. The need of one part per million dissolved oxygen is the limiting factor in the size of fairy shrimp populations. The brine shrimp, Artemia,belongs to the phylum Arthropoda (joint-legged invertebrates), class Crustacea (shrimp, crab, lobster). There are several species of Artemia worldwide; Artemia franciscana is the species living in Great Salt Lake (and also in San Francisco Bay). Brine shrimp live in hypersaline lakes in which the salt content may be 25%, predators and competitors are few, and algal production is high. The life cycle of Artemia begins from a dormant cyst that contains an embryo in a suspended state of metabolism (known as diapause). The cysts are very hardy and may remain viable for many years if kept dry.

I’ve caught lots of fish using shrimp. Water-temperature and salinity changes in Great Salt Lake occur in about February and cause the cysts to rehydrate and open to release the first growth stage, known as a nauplius larva. Depending on the water temperature, the larvae remain in this stage for about 12 hours, subsisting on yolk reserves before molting to the second nauplius stage, which feeds on small algal cells and detritus using hair-like structures on the antennae known as setae. Although the cysts are very small (about 200 micrometers in diameter; 50 could fit on the head of a pin) at times they become so numerous that they form large red-brown streaks on the surface of the lake. Under optimum conditions of food supply and lack of stress from increasing salinity or decreasing dissolved oxygen, fertilized female shrimp may produce eggs that hatch soon after emerging from the ovisac to produce nauplius larvae, which is known as ovoviparous reproduction. If conditions are perfect, the female can live as long as 3 months and produce as many as 300 live nauplii or cysts every 4 days. However, the cold spring-time temperatures and variable food supply in Great Salt Lake usually limit the population to two or three generations per year. The nauplii molt about 15 times before reaching adult size of about 10 millimeters in length. Adult male shrimp are easily identified by the large pair of “graspers” on the head end of the animal. These are modified antennae and are used to hold unto the female during mating. The population of Artemia franciscana in Great Salt Lake includes both males and females and reproduces sexually, but some species of Artemia exhibit parthenogenesis, a reproductive mode in which only females are present that give rise to young females in the absence of males. Adult shrimp feed primarily on phytoplankton (algae) suspended in the water but can also “graze” on benthic algae such as blue-greens or diatoms growing on the bottom of Great Salt Lake in shallow areas. They also may reprocess fecal pellets excreted earlier in the year when large numbers of phytoplankton present in their diet were incompletely processed. A recent study showed that the shrimp can graze on diatoms that colonize shrimp exoskeleton parts released from their many molts. As the food supply becomes exhausted, salinity increases, dissolved oxygen decreases, or a combination of these conditions occurs, the female shrimp switch from producing live young to producing cysts through oviparous reproduction. In Great Salt Lake, the adult shrimp typically die from lack of food or low temperature during December. Although, live brine shrimp have been observed in the lake at a water temperature of 3 degrees Celsius (37 degrees Fahrenheit), it is unlikely they can reproduce at that temperature. The cysts, which in Great Salt Lake are lighter than the lake water, float on the water surface where they may be harvested or may overwinter to form the source of shrimp for the following year. Brine shrimp are also called “Sea Monkeys” and are raised in aquariums for their entertainment value. For information on raising Artemia from cysts commercially available to individuals click on the links below: The brine shrimp industry began on Great Salt Lake during the 1950’s when adult shrimp were harvested to be used as fish food in the aquarium trade in the United States. During the 1970’s, the market became dominated by harvest of the cysts, which were used in the commercial aquaculture of shrimp, prawns, and some fish primarily outside of the United States. As the demand for Artemia cysts grew, so did the reported harvest from Great Salt Lake. The quantity and quality of the shrimp cysts depends on many environmental factors, but salinity of the water is very important. Although the cysts from Great Salt Lake will hatch at 2 to 3% salinity, in the lake environment there is greater production of cysts at salinities above about 10%

Shrimp seem to be well-rounded animals. You can eat them or use them to get more food, such as fish. As lake salinites drop near 5 to 6%, the cysts lose buoyancy, sink, and are more difficult to harvest. During the flood years of 1983-87, when record flows of freshwater entered Great Salt Lake, the salinity of the south part of the lake (also called Gilbert Bay) dropped to about 5.5% and the commercial shrimp industry moved to the part of the lake north of the railroad causeway (called Gunnison Bay) where most of the shrimp were located. By about 1989, the salinity in the south part of the lake was near 10% and the industry again relocated to the south part. The harvest of cysts in 1995-96 and 1996-97 was about 15 million pounds gross weight (about half is suitable for final product). In 1997 declining salinity (to 11%) resulted in a shift in the algal community to large diatoms which were not a good food source for Artemia. The 1997-98 harvest was stopped after about 3 weeks and only 6.1 million pounds of cysts were harvested. The cysts are used not only as a food supply for the aquaculture industry but also for bioassay testing of toxins, drugs, and other chemicals. Northern or pink shrimp, Pandalus borealis, are distributed discontinuously throughout boreal waters of the North Atlantic, North Pacific, and Arctic Oceans. In the Gulf of Maine, northern shrimp are considered to comprise a unit stock. They inhabit soft mud bottom at depths of approximately 10 to 300 m (2 to 165 fathoms), most commonly in the cold waters of the southwest Gulf of Maine. The Gulf of Maine is the southern limit of the species’ distribution in the North Atlantic, and temperature is an important factor in ontogenetic rates and reproductive success for this stock. Northern shrimp are protandrous hermaphrodites. In the Gulf of Maine, they generally spawn as males in their third summer; they subsequently undergo transition and become mature females in their fourth year. After spawning and egg extrusion in summer, ovigerous females move to coastal waters in late autumn, where eggs hatch in wintertime. Juveniles remain inshore for more than a year and then migrate offshore as they begin to mature. A directed otter trawl fishery for northern shrimp began in coastal waters of the Gulf of Maine during the winter months in the 1930s. In the 1960s, landings rose rapidly to a peak of 12,800 mt in 1969 with the expansion of an offshore, year-round fishery; and approximately 11,000 mt were landed annually from 1970-1972. After 1972, landings declined rapidly, leading to increasingly restrictive management measures and closure of the fishery in 1978. The current fishery , primarily a trawl fishery (with a small coastal trap fishery in central Maine), reopened in 1979 and landings increased gradually to 5,000 mt for 1987; the 1988-1994 annual average was 3,400 mt. Landings then increased to 6,800 mt in 1995 and to 9,500 mt in 1996.

Overall, shrimp are very useful. The latter figure has been exceeded only during the peak years of the fishery just prior to the 1970s stock collapse. Landings then declined from 6,300 mt in 1997 to 1,700 mt in 1999 and then rose to 2,400 mt in 2000 with recruitment of the 1996 year class. A delayed start to the 2000 season allowed the fishery to fish inshore on aggregated concentrations of shrimp, with a sharp rise in commercial catch per unit effort or CPUE compared to preceding seasons. Nominal fishing effort increased in the late 1960s to an average of 16,000 trips for the 1970-1972 fishing seasons. Effort decreased rapidly in the 1970s, but has increased considerably since the 1978 closure. The number of trips peaked at over 12,000 in the 1987 season, decreased to about 6,000 trips in 1994, and again increased to about 12,000 trips during the 1996 season. Since then, the number of trips has steadily declined to 3,400 trips in 2000. The fishery is managed via gear restrictions and seasonal limits (set within a 183-day “window” from December through May) under the authority of the Atlantic States Marine Fisheries Commission (ASMFC). For 2001, the Commission has established a split season of 83 days, extending from January 9 -March 17 and from April 16-30. Stock biomass is currently monitored by the NEFSC autumn bottom trawl survey and the ASMFC summer shrimp survey. The NEFSC autumn survey biomass index declined to very low levels during the late 1970s and has since increased somewhat. Stock biomass for 2000 as estimated from a modified DeLury model (6,000 mt) was well below the 1986-1995 average of 17,000 mt. Abundance of large shrimp at the end of the 1996 fishing season was the lowest since the early 1980s, with a slight increase through 1999, probably in response to decreased effort and exploitation during the late 1990s.  Exploitation rates during fishing seasons increased from 8% to 29% from 1985-1995 and then to 52% during the 1997 season before declining to 18% during 2000. This decline is consistent with the decline in nominal effort during the same period. Exploitation rates at or near the 1997 level occurred in the late 1960s and early 1970s just prior to the time of the stock collapse. Continued exploitation at the 1997 level would increase the potential for overfishing and resultant declines in abundance and recruitment.

Yes, I did actually search through several websites and found all I could on shrimp..from life styles to how to raise them to some kind of cancerous shrimp to what kinds are best for you. There is over 6,000 words here, along with random inserts of my personal opinion on shrimp, instead of just facts about them. This better count as answering the question!! And I would not waste my time on just anyone, and this application took me a very long time, so you should feel as special as a 4-year-old girl having a princess birthday party with all her friends, or as special as a mother receiving breakfast in bed on Mother’s day, or as special as a father receiving a new chainsaw on Father’s day, or as special as someone I would spend this much time on just to make them laugh!!

%d bloggers like this: